The introduction, methods, results, and discussion IMRAD structure

Sets questions about the character of change that are addressed in the case studies included… To theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan…

  1. The introduction supplies sufficient background information for the reader to understand and evaluate the experiment you did.
  2. The byline or list of authors includes all individuals that contributed in a substantial manner to the research being reported.
  3. Overall, however, the IMRAD format was devised to represent a textual version of the scientific method.
  4. Selecting research topics might be a nightmare for all college students since you are expected to write about something new even though nobody expects you to make some groundbreaking discovery, especially not during the early years of your studies.
  5. I begin with a simple description of the algorithm itself and then give 3 examples of its use in physics.
  6. The title should be brief and specific enough to clearly communicate the contents of the paper/research, but should not be overly technical.

That is, you have to recognize what’s new about your project and how it benefits the wider body of scientific knowledge. On a more pragmatic level, especially for undergraduates, connecting your lab work to previous research will demonstrate to the TA that you see the big picture. You have an opportunity, in the Discussion section, to distinguish yourself from the students in your class who aren’t thinking beyond the barest facts of the study. Capitalize on this opportunity by putting your own work in context.

Controversial Topics for Research Paper

To financial markets offer valuable insights for anyone interested in the theory, practice, products, and applications within this field. With examples of applications and problems arising in numerical testing of global optimization algorithms are discussed…

imrad lab report topics

Make yourself a checklist of everything your paper needs to include before you turn it in. Highlight each specific direction what does argumentative essay mean in the prompt (“12-point font,” “double-spaced,” etc.)Make sure you know what citation style you’re expected to use!

How Do I Present Findings From My Experiment in a Report?

Links to further support on referencing can be found at the end of this post. Scientific reports should provide the reader with clear instructions on how to replicate an experiment and ensure that the methodology can be examined, and the results validated whilst also using and reflecting upon existing literature. Study the annotated sample lab report layout on the following pages, which is adapted from the University of Toronto Mississauga’s Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre tip sheet on lab reports. Notice that the “most common elements” identified above by MIT are not all present in the sample lab report. Similarly, your assignment guidelines may require specific details that are different from this sample. The discussion should end with a paragraph that summarises the main findings of the study and makes conclusions based on the topics that have been covered.

imrad lab report topics

To various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory , including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems . This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency essay topic examples planning considerations for persons who have fallen. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed…. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defences against malware are discussed….

Scientific writing: Lab reports

The complete article was published under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-4.0) in the International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture . Note the various essential sections of the lab report, recognizable by the headings placed as signposts in the document. Finally, the Discussion or Analysis section contains the interpretation of results obtained in the laboratory or other experimental work. Similar to the clear separation you must make between Materials and Methods and Results, the discussion or analysis occupies its own major section of a lab report. It should then relate the findings to your original predictions and to the reported conclusions of previous studies. The results of your study can then be contextualised to support, contradict or qualify these previous findings.

imrad lab report topics

To evaluate scientific publishing transformations, Sollaci and Pereira conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the frequency of the IMRaD usage in articles published between 1935 and 1985. The research team found the IMRaD format was partially implemented in medical writing in the 60s and became a predominant outline for scientific publications in the 80s.


This handout provides a general guide to writing reports about scientific research you’ve performed. In addition to describing the conventional rules about the format and content of a lab report, we’ll also attempt to convey why these rules exist, so you’ll get a clearer, more dependable idea of how to approach this writing situation. Readers of this handout may also find our handout how to start a quote on writing in the sciences useful. It is also important to be able to distinguish between review articles and research articles. A review article’s primary purpose is not to present new research, but to summarize, analyze, discuss, and provide an overview of previously published work on a topic. A research article is designed to present new research, methods, and/or findings.

Many believe that a scientist’s most difficult job is not conducting an experiment but presenting the results in an effective and coherent way. Even when your methods and technique are sound and your notes are comprehensive, writing a report can be a challenge because organizing and communicating scientific findings requires patience and a thorough grasp of certain conventions. Having a clear understanding of the typical goals and strategies for writing an effective lab report can make the process much less troubling. Does the Results section present the researchers’ key findings and observations without analyzing them?

Structure of a report

For that reason, many people recommend using passive voice to create a more objective, professional tone, emphasizing what was done TO your subject. However, active voice is becoming increasingly common in scientific writing, especially in social sciences, so the ultimate decision of passive vs. active voice is up to you . This format is usually not used in reports describing other kinds of research, such as field or case studies, in which headings are more likely to differ according to discipline. Although the main headings are standard for many scientific fields, details may vary; check with your instructor, or, if submitting an article to a journal, refer to the instructions to authors. This anthology highlights the potentials and challenges for research in architecture and design. The included essays are based on papers given at a symposium held at the Aarhus School of Architecture in 2011 and contain a number…… Of topical positions ranging from the activist and academic to practice-based and artistically-based research by international and Danish researchers.

  1. To signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks….
  2. There are a number of different strategies that you can use to write concisely including ‘Short, relevant, critical’ which are described in more detail in the ‘Writing your main body’ resource.
  3. Google Scholar is a good resource, just keep in mind that not all journal articles can be found there.
  4. Its collection of scholarly, government and general-interest titles include content on the environmental effects of individuals, corporations and local/national governments, and what can be done on each level to minimize negative impact.
  5. Similarly, try to avoid using the word “proof” or “proves.” Your work is merely suggesting evidence for new ideas.

To Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various… The regulations in this part 48 are designated “Manufacturers and Retailers Excise Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the excise taxes… Automobiles, highway-type tires, taxable fuel, aviation fuel, coal, certain vaccines, and sporting goods… There are some books that target the theory of the finite element, while others focus on the programming side of things. That it is the ambition of this collection of articles to discuss and make sense of the significant differences in the developments,where newgeopolitical dynamics reshape theMENA-region’s post-‘Arab Spring’ reality….

Article References

Method description increasingly developed during the second half of the nineteenth century , and an overall organization known as “theory—experiment—discussion” appeared . In the early twentieth century, contemporary norms average length of college essay began to be standardized with a decreasing use of the literary style. Gradually, in the course of the twentieth century, the formal established introduction, methods, results, and discussion structure was adopted .

If you create a set of graphs, make them the same size and format, including all the verbal and visual codes (captions, symbols, scale, etc.). You want to be as consistent as possible in your illustrations, so that your readers can easily make the comparisons you’re trying to get them to see. Plot the independent variable on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable on the vertical axis.


You may use the lab report assignment specifications for a course in which you are currently enrolled, or for one you may take in the future. If you are unsure how to obtain the instructions for a lab report, consult a teaching assistant, tutor, or lab instructor. A overview of how to help argumentative writing meaning undergraduate students write lab reports. The discussion section is probably the least formalized part of the report, in that you can’t really apply the same structure to every type of experiment. In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to make of the Results you obtained.

imrad lab report topics

A list of the published works that were cited in the paper or report using the proper citation and reference format for the field and publication (e.g. citing and providing a reference list using the American Chemical Society guidelines). The discussion section highlights and interprets the results or data obtained and explains how the resulting data relates to the original research question.

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